If you should ask any person who is a developer and who has the knowledge of Linux enough about the first programming language and they would answer C. This is because of the alignment in the history of C and Unix.
For over 24 years now, Linux has been the best pitch for programmers and developers while in need of programming languages. It is not limited to languages like C++, Python, and Java but we also have other languages like: c# (Mono), Fortran, Pascal, COBOL, Lisp and many more.
As at 2014, Python was placed on the top of the list by the readers of Linux Journal. It earned 30.2%. C++ which earned 17.8 % followed, then C which earned 16.7% , Perl 7.1% and the last, Java, 6.9%.
For the past few years, those positions have not been changed. They have remained large as they were. However, Google Go is one programming language speeding up Linux Journal list. It leapt from 1.8% it was as at 2013 to 2.4 % in the year 2016. You can get more exposure on the programming languages below.
The popularity of Python is almost generated by its ability to work for general purposes. Also you can easily understand the language very well as it comes with an interpreters and compliers like cpython, Jytthon, pypy etc
C++ takes the stage where Python seems tired especially when it comes to developing AAA games and High Performance Computing (HPC).. However, using C++ requires that you are more of a full developer than Python.
Close to metal programming as you can ever get is C. The closeness is the reason Linus Torvalds likes it. C is easy to learn. However, there is the need to write a whole lot of code so as to do things that reach the standard of other languages too.
Perl came installed on Linux. The Swiss Army chainsaw of scripting languages as described Perl as the language for the sophisticated language for processing of texts. It has been since 1987. However, despite its age, languages like Python, PHP, and Ruby have replaced it.
With regard to server-side tech, Linux has constituted a natural habitat for Java. The design of the cline-side Windows application which talks to the Linux Java servers is a popular one and it is very popular with businesses.
Google Go has got a number of fans for the past five years. For their respective internal systems, it has been what Google, Dropbox and other companies have been utilising. It has a C-like syntax that helps in compiling and executing programs fast.
It should be noted that each of these programming languages is good on its own. It is just that each use is dependent on what you actually want to do.